Let us know a little bit about the life of Neanderthals on the earth almost many years ago. Some species of snakes are seen around us. Various species of frogs are also seen in our eyes. Well, are there just different species of snakes and frogs? No, not just frogs and snakes. All animals in the animal world are different species. We are not kind of human. There are also people of different species. Today, however, we (Homo sapiens) have established ourselves trusting all other species on the path of evolution. We have lived for thousands of years. But what were the people of our previous species like? How was your behavior, eating, living? Answering this question is not easy. Because they died out of the earth thousands of years ago.
People of different species have come to earth at different times. However, only current homo sapiens survives;
However, much is known about this in modern human studies. Neanderthals are the closest human species to the present day among human species. They disappeared from Earth about 3 or 4,000 years ago. Many of its fossils are currently recovered. As a result, we have learned more about Neanderthals than other species. In today’s letter, attempts will be made to inform people of this endangered species that has disappeared from the earth.
Neanderthals at a glance
- Species: Homo neanderthalensis
- Life expectancy: 4 million to 40 thousand years.
- Habitat: across Europe, Southwest and Central Asia
- Appearance: large nose, arched eyebrows, relatively small and plump body
- Brain size: 1,200 cm3 to 1,750 cm3
- Height: 1.50 to 1.75 m
- Weight: about 64 to 82 kg
- Meals: meat, kittens, mushrooms, fish, snails, oysters.
- Species name: 1864
- The meaning of the name: People in the Niagara Valley
Why the name Neanderthals?
The Latin word homo’s synonym in English Human / Man; People in Bengal. Although several fossils of Neanderthals were discovered before 656565, fósfossils obtained from Neanderthals in Germany típ were typical specimens or fossils of Neanderthals.
This species is named after the Niagara Valley. The Tal Valley is used in German to denote the English Valley. However, in the 18th century, Germans used to pronounce that. As a result, the species name is Neanderthals. However, some people still feel comfortable saying “Neanderthal”. Internationally, the species has been named Homo as mass and Neanderthalensis internationally. As a result, the scientific name for this species of humanity is Homo Neanderthalensis. And generally understood, the species name is Neanderthals.
In 1829 the skull of a Neanderthal baby was discovered in a cave near Angus, Belgium. This was the first fossil found by Neanderthals. However, it was not recognized as a possible human ancestor until more fossils were discovered in the second half of the 19th century.
Since then, thousands of fossils have been found in various parts of Europe and the Middle East, representing the remains of several hundred Neanderthals. These include fossils for babies, children, and adults up to age 40. As a result, more is known about Neanderthals than any other human ancestor. The Neanderthal fossil 1 was discovered in 1865 in the Nyandar Valley, Germany.
Then a skull was discovered more than 4,000 years ago in Le Moustére, France. It was the skull of a Neanderthal, a teenager. The unique feature that Neanderthals possessed was also in this skull. These traits were not acquired in life but were genetically modified. Then the discovery of Shanida fossil 1. In 1909, the LaFerrari fossil was discovered 50,000 years ago in France. The Kebara 2 fossil was discovered in Israel 60,000 years ago in 1983. These fossils assist researchers in in-depth research on Neanderthals.
Our closest relatives are human beings.
Neanderthals are contemporary and almost identical in character to our species Homo sapiens. Neanderthals, along with Denisovans from Asia, were our former human relatives.
Both Neanderthals and modern humans come from the same common ancestor. Genetic research also shows that we, as modern humans, share some of our DNA with our Neanderthal ancestors. We have had the opportunity to live with them a few million years before Neanderthals on earth. Homo sapiens emerged in Europe about 60-70 thousand years ago. But before that Neanderthals lived in Europe. And they disappeared from earth 3 or 3,000 years ago. As a result, we have lived with Neanderthals for thousands of years.
Where did Neanderthals live?
Scientists and archaeologists conducting fossil research discovered that Neanderthals had a complete development in Europe almost a million years ago. The species extends from Eurasia, western Portugal, and Wales to the Altai Mountains in Siberia. Neanderthals were adaptable. They lived successfully for millions of years despite the cold weather.
How did Neanderthals look?
Neanderthal skulls were tall and short. It was not spherical like modern humans. They had different eyebrows with special arrows in their eyes. The central part of his mouth was slightly more extended in the front. What easily caught their attention was the long, wide nose. Some scientists believe that the reason for such an occurrence is to survive in a cold, dry environment. Their nostrils were enlarged as they used to hydrate and heat the air they breathed.
His front teeth were very large and had marked. When they made food or other materials, their long teeth worked third-hand. Neanderthals had a strong muscular body. The waist and neck were wide. The adult Neanderthals were 1.50 to 1.75 m tall and weighed 64-82 kg.
The earliest Neanderthals were taller than Neanderthals, but the weight was the same. The size of the nipples was very large for women. Because of the rapid development of the brain required a lot of matriarchies. Their bodies were small, with small hands and feet. Such a body was adequate to survive in cold environments.
Neanderthal intelligence and behavior
Although the Neanderthals lived in caves, they had enough intelligence and their behavior was very elegant. His brain size was 1,200-1,750 cubic centimeters, which is higher than today. Thirty thousand years ago, our brain size was even larger.
Neanderthals could use their intelligence to make various weapons, such as spears, axes. Almost three million years ago, Neanderthals invented a rocky technology called the Live lice Technique. They made the necessary weapons from the bones of the animals. This shows that they could make their own weapons when necessary. They hunted mammoths, wild bulls, and deer. The marks of their wounds on these victims indicate that they were skilled, intelligent hunters and could communicate with each other. Two million years ago, Neanderthal learned to shoot.
Neanderthals used to be small groups and they took care of each other
They needed fire to survive adverse weather conditions. Neanderthals lived in caves. Since they lived in cold weather, they needed to keep their bodies warm. So they had the skin of different animals. However, investigators did not find out if her clothes were sewn. Neanderthals liked each other. Neanderthal excavations discovered that they buried dead Neanderthals. Not only the grave but also the grave markers. They also sprinkled flowers on the grave.
What Neanderthals eat
Neanderthals lived in very cold conditions. However, they were very talented at hunting. They used to hunt different animals.
Niandarathala used to collect food from the river and the sea
Although essentially carnivorous, the presence of various cataracts on their teeth shows that they also eat latrines. Maybe they used to collect these leaves or the leaves among the stomachs of the grasshoppers they ate. In addition, they also eat different species of mushrooms. They also eat oysters, sealed fish, and dolphins. Although they cannot hunt directly with these seals or dolphins, they eat dead seals or dolphins. The sealed jaw was recovered from the Vanguard Cave in Gibraltar. Researchers have studied the jaws and found that Neanderthals also relied on sea creatures for food. Although the Neanderthals knew how to set fire, he was still not sure if they would cook their food every day.
Could Neanderthals speak?
It is very difficult to determine if Neanderthals could speak. Because Neanderthals could not preserve the tissue contained in the vocal cords to speak. However, the structure of the mouth and the bones of the ear suggest that they were capable of listening just like modern humans. Today, researchers have found that their social life was very complex and they were able to speak freely among themselves. However, their language was quite clear.
Neanderthal work of art
Neanderthals not only invented various hunting methods. They also learned to draw on the walls. In 2018, researchers studied three warnings in Spain and discovered that they were drawn almost 3,000 years ago. Modern man did not appear in Europe at that time. In other words, industrial consciousness developed among Neanderthals before modern humans.
About this cave, Chris Standish, an archaeologist at the University of Southampton, said that the cave was one of the oldest cavemen ever discovered on earth. It was painted two thousand years before modern people came to Europe
Eagles wore nails and ivory as jewelry
Not only did they know how to draw, but they also knew how to make different jewelry. Some of her jewelry was made with eagle nails. They were read as necklaces or bracelets. Among the many jewels they have found, the oldest jewelry was made about 100,000 years ago. The Groot du Ren cave in France has been found in various animals, especially ivory, which Neanderthals have made into beautiful jewels. Neanderthals used various pigments on their bodies to dress up or decorate themselves.
Neanderthals once became cannibals
Cannibalism is eating the meat of our species. There was a time when Neanderthals also practiced cannibalism. Evidence that Neanderthals eat their own species is found in the bones of humans from the Goat’s cave in Belgium. Researchers found in the cave approximately 1,000 years ago include bones of newborns, babies, young and old.
After analyzing these bones, they discovered that Neanderthals ate their own meat. These bones are precisely the time when Neanderthals are on the brink of extinction on earth and Homo sapiens (humans present) take their place. The study also showed that Neanderthals were really smart. Even when they came to destruction, they cared for their bodies and completed the burial process. But as the number of dead increases, they begin to consume the dead.
Recently, an international team led by Helen Russian, an anthropologist at California State University in the United States, investigated the bones of Neanderthals in Goethe Cave. Their study also found evidence of cannibalism.
In this regard, Cristian Cassius said that there are marks on the bones. She was stripped of bone meat. Neanderthals broke the bones in a way that broke the bones of horses and deer. In such a way that it has separated the meat from the bones of the horse and the deer. But the exact reason why they eat their meat remains a mystery.
The way Neanderthals disappeared
The study of fossils and archaeological signs of Neanderthals shows that Neanderthals disappeared from the earth about 3,000 years ago. Although many modern people have their DNA. It is a known phenomenon that Neanderthals have disappeared from the earth, but why and how they disappeared after almost three and a half years of life. The exact cause of its extinction is still unknown. However, there are several common trends regarding its extinction.
Some think that modern Homo sapiens are responsible for its extinction. The first modern people began to appear in Europe 40 or 60 thousand years ago. At that time, homo sapiens and Neanderthals used to coexist. But Homo sapiens continued to evolve into iconic art by applying its intelligence. As a result, the competition between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens began. Neanderthals, meanwhile, were lagging behind Homo sapiens toward reproduction. As a result, the number of Homo sapiens steadily increased compared to Neanderthals. As a result, Neanderthals lagged behind Homo sapiens in the race to survive. Furthermore, Homo sapiens began to occupy its habitat. As a result, Neanderthals continue to be displaced. However, many scientists think that Neanderthals were genetically weaker than homo sapiens. As a result, Neanderthals were unable to survive in competition with Homo sapiens.
Many attribute the adverse climate behind the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Neanderthals often had to go through bad weather. The place where they lived at that time was very cold. However, the climate changes slowly. As the weather continues to change, they begin to be unable to adapt. Due to bad weather, Neanderthals split into continental factions 1 million years ago. As a result, the rate of decline among Neanderthals also decreases. That is why their number also decreases. However, not all went extinct at the same time. Little by little, they became extinct. That’s why many researchers believe that Neanderthals have become extinct due to their ability to adapt to rapidly changing climates and adverse weather conditions.
Are we wandering through the DNA of Neanderthals?
A study of Neanderthal genomes (DNA and nuclear genes), published in 2010, showed that modern humans and Neanderthals had sex, albeit of limited size. Researchers have compared the genomes of modern humans with Neanderthals to discover that DNA was exchanged between modern humans and Neanderthals.
This indicates that modern humans reproduce with Neanderthals after leaving Africa but before spreading to Asia and Europe. Homo sapiens and Neanderthals coexisted for thousands of years in a place called Levante 3 to 4,000 years ago. However, fertility levels were low among them. Why fertility levels were low among them remains an important question for researchers. However, due to cultural differences, fertility may be lower in them. When homo sapiens had sex with Neanderthals about a year ago, the
DNA exchange between them began.
Therefore, the DNA effect of Hemo sapiens continues to increase as the exchange occurs. Because Neanderthals are far behind in the race to survive on humans and are almost on the verge of extinction. As a result, the DNA of homo sapiens gradually dominates. However, Neanderthals and humans were raised throughout Africa. That is why Neanderthals do not have DNA in people in Africa. About 3 percent of people outside of Africa still have DNA. However, many researchers believe that humans have 15-20 percent of Neanderthal DNA. That is why many people still have the impression of Neanderthals on their faces.